Rush-Bagot Agreement

A plaque from the Ontario Heritage Trust in Kingston, Ontario, recognizes the Rush Bagot Agreement (44°13′48″N 76°27′59″W / 44.229894°N 76.466292°W / 44.229894; -76.466292). A commemorative plaque is also on the former site of the British Embassy in Washington, D.C (38°54′13.7″N 77°3′8.4″W / 38.903806°N 77.052333°W / 38.903806; -77.052333) where the agreement was negotiated. On the site of Old Fort Niagara (43°15′48″N 79°03′49″W / 43.263347°N 79.063719°W / 43.263347; -79.063719) is a monument with reliefs of Rush and Bagot as well as the words of the treaty. [10] The Rush Bagot Pact was an agreement between the United States and Great Britain to eliminate their fleets from the Great Lakes, with the exception of small patrol ships. The 1818 Convention established the boundary between the Territory of Missouri in the United States and British North America (later Canada) at forty-ninth latitude. These two agreements reflected the easing of diplomatic tensions that had led to the War of 1812 and marked the beginning of Anglo-American cooperation. Although the treaty caused difficulties during the First World War, its terms were not changed. Similar problems arose before the Second World War, but Foreign Minister Cordell Hull wanted to preserve the agreement because of its historical importance. In 1939 and 1940, Canada and the United States agreed to interpret the treaty so that weapons would be installed in the Great Lakes, but would no longer be operational until ships left the lakes. In 1942, the United States, now at war and allied with Canada, successfully proposed that weapons be fully installed and tested in the lakes by the end of the war.

Following discussions in the Permanent Joint Board on Defense in 1946, Canada similarly proposed to interpret the agreement to allow the use of ships for training purposes when each country informs the other. [9] Although the agreements did not fully cover border disputes and trade agreements, the Rush Bagot Agreement and the 1818 Convention marked an important turning point in Anglo-American and American-Canadian relations. Bagot met informally with Secretary of State James Monroe and eventually reached an agreement with his successor, Acting Minister Richard Rush. The agreement limited military navigation on the Great Lakes to one to two ships per country on each sea. The U.S. Senate ratified the agreement on April 28, 1818. The British government felt that a diplomatic exchange of letters between Rush and Bagot was sufficient to make the agreement effective. In addition to the issue of military navigation on the Great Lakes, the British Government was also open to negotiations on a number of other contentious issues that had not been resolved by the Treaty of Ghent. Several commissions met to settle border disputes along the U.S. border with British North America. One of these contracts was awarded to several islands off the coast of Maine, New Brunswick.

However, negotiators have stalled in other parts of maine`s and New Hampshire`s northern borders. This problem was only solved with the Webster Ashburton Treaty of 1842, which also resolved the boundary between Canada and northeastern Minnesota. The HMCS Stone Frigate, located at the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario, was built in 1820 to store part of the dismantled British fleet of the War of 1812 that had been dismantled under the Rush Bagot Treaty. [5] U.S. . . .

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